On juniper or eastern red cedar, small (three-eighths to 1 3-16
inches in diameter) galls develop throughout the tree on needles
and small twigs. When mature, these galls swell considerably and
repeatedly produce orange, gelatinous telial horns during rainy
spring weather. As spring rains subside, the galls die, which
may cause death of the twig from the gall to the tip.
susceptible crab apples and apples, tiny yellow spots appear on
the leaves after infection in the spring. As the spots mature,
they become yellow-orange and swollen with a red border, and
develop tiny black dots in the center of the lesion. By
midsummer, small cuplike structures with tubes are visible on
the undersides of mature leaf lesions. The fungus may also
infect fruit and tender twigs of very susceptible crab apple and
The entire life cycle takes about two years, with a year on
each host. The apple phase is easily recognized on the leaves
and fruit by just about anybody who has grown apples. The
teliospore phase on the cedars is quite striking but is noticed
much less frequently. Fungicides in spray programs do a good job
of controlling the apple phase, while the cedar phase is best
controlled by buying resistant varieties. Some homeowners cut
the galls off before they break out into the "orange blob," but
the result is the same: You're going to likely lose the tips on
Broadleaf weed control
Everyone seems to have been waiting for warmer temperatures
and the appointed date to begin broadleaf weed control programs.
Well, that time has just about arrived.
[to top of second column]
The first item of business is to know what type of weeds you want
to control. This will make a big difference in what product or
products you select. The main products used for broadleaf weed
control in lawns are 2,4-D, MCPP, dicamba, a combination of those
three products, and triclopyr.
Let's start with the triclopyr since it's probably the easiest to
discuss. Its place in weed control is for violet control. It
improves control of violets. It can be added to one or more other
chemicals to provide broad-spectrum control. Some blends now contain
trichlopyr, so check the label.
The old standby is 2,4-D. It is good on carpetweed, chicory,
dandelion, lamb's-quarters, plantains and wild carrot. MCPP is good
on chicory, lamb's-quarters and white clover. Dicamba is good on
black medic, chickweeds, chicory, dandelion, dock, henbit, knotweed,
lamb's-quarters, pearlwort, purslane, red sorrel, thistles, white
clover, wild carrot and yarrow. The combination of all three
products will pick up all of those listed for the individual
products, plus a few more, such as mallow, speedwell and wild onion.
The combinations are sold under many different trade names, so check
the active ingredient list for ones you need.
My annual disclaimer for application of these types of products
is: "Beware of potential drift from these products." Not only can
the spray move under windy conditions while you are spraying, but
particularly with dicamba, the products can drift as a vapor for up
to two weeks after spraying if conditions are hot and humid.
[Text from file received from
Fulton, University of Illinois Extension,
Logan County Unit]