Clinical tests on the four-year, $1.74 million project for NASA, called the Virtual Space Station, are expected to begin in the Boston area by next month.
The new program is nothing like science fiction's infamous HAL, the onboard artificial intelligence that goes awry in "2001: A Space Odyssey." The Virtual Space Station's interaction between astronaut and computer is far less sophisticated and far more benevolent.
In the project, sponsored by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, a recorded video therapist guides astronauts through a widely used depression therapy called "problem-solving treatment."
The recording helps astronauts identify reasons for their depression. Then the program helps them make a plan to fight the depression, based on the descriptions the astronauts type in about their problems.
Astronauts also can learn strategies for handling conflict through interactive role-playing, and even read psychology books.
Twenty-nine current and former astronauts have been consulted for the project.
"If things go down the wrong pathway, you're depending on each other for your survival. So you want to make sure you're working together well and trust each other implicitly," said Dr. Jay Buckey, a former astronaut on the Space Shuttle Columbia who's collaborating on the program.
While the program is designed for astronauts, project leaders say it could help Earth-bound patients who won't talk to a therapist because of cost or pride or because they live in rural areas with few psychologists. In fact, it will be civilian patients, not astronauts, who take part in the initial tests in Boston.
There are "a lot of barriers to getting help from a professional, even if you want it here," said Dr. James Cartreine, a Harvard researcher who heads the project. "Whereas getting help from a computer, there's not nearly as many barriers."
Depression and personal conflicts have no real effect on the vast majority of space missions. But some psychological problems are inevitable, particularly on longer assignments, given the high demands, close quarters and months in near isolation. Most conflicts never become public unless they are revealed by an agency or astronaut.
In 1985, a mission on Russia's Salyut 7 space station was scrapped after colleagues noticed the commander seemed uninterested in the work and spent hours looking out portholes. Three years earlier, a mission on the same space station was hampered by tension between two astronauts.
"We don't understand what's going on with us," one of the crew members, Valentin Lebedev, wrote in the book "Diary of a Cosmonaut." "We silently walk by each other, feeling offended. We have to find some way to make things better."
Space can affect mood by playing havoc with natural body rhythms and sleep. Weightlessness seems to throw off those rhythms. And on the international space station, for instance, the normal day-night cues are disrupted as sunrises and sunsets come every 45 minutes.