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"I watched Jackie die by starving to death," Krause said. "Before insulin, diabetics would just die because eating doesn't make any difference: anything that you ate couldn't be converted and you literally starved to death because your body couldn't absorb anything."
Canadian scientists Frederick Banting and John Macleod made the discovery in 1921 through experiments with a mixture of ground cow pancreas water and salts that eventually became insulin.
When experimenting with the mixture in humans began in 1922, scientists found they were literally injecting life into people who were wasting away. The discovery led to a Nobel Prize in 1923.
When Krause began taking insulin, diabetics had to boil glass syringes with long needles, sharpening the point when it would go blunt with wear.
Krause remembers how his mother, having lost one child to diabetes, weighed every piece of food Krause ate and kept him on a strict diet. By the time he was 6, he was giving himself injections in the arms or legs at every meal.
Back then, blood sugar testing was imprecise, messy and inconvenient. Krause would boil his urine in a test tube and drop a tablet into it that would turn different colors based on how much blood sugar was in the sample.
Since 1978, Krause has relied on his insulin pump to administer his dosages into his stomach, though he enters the amount of the dose himself rather than relying on automated doses of insulin that pumps can give throughout the day.
Krause's son, Tom Krause, said his engineer father has always been precise, measured and calculated -- down to the box of sugar cubes he always kept next to his bed in case he felt faint.
"Having a sugar cube is a precise measurement -- that's how much he kept track, down to the cube of sugar," said Tom Krause, 50.
And though Tom Krause inherited his father's diabetes, he doesn't share his father's regimented control of the illness.
"My dad, he is just a machine in how well he cares and manages his diabetes, with his willpower and how long he's been doing it," Tom Krause said.
Krause praises the advent of blood testing as one of the most life-changing moments in diabetes medicine, since it allows him to get a more precise reading of his blood sugar levels by pricking his finger for a test strip that is read by a machine.
"It's easier to control things today than it was back then. Back then you just ate a meal and that's all you ate all day long, you didn't eat anything in between and if your blood sugar got low, you would feel faint and drink orange juice and wait," Krause said.
Though they've worked together to make sure his treatment keeps up with the times, Krause reminds Wu of the same thing each time he leaves her office.
"He'll say, `I've been doing this for 80-number of years and it has gotten me this far and I'm still here, so who are you to tell me how to do this? I've been doing this since before you were born,'" Wu recalls with a laugh.
Joslin Diabetes Center: http://www.joslin.org/
Shaya Tayefe Mohajer can be reached at http://twitter.com/APShaya.
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