Not only is a widening geographic gulf between the haves and
have-nots hurting economic mobility, it signals potentially dimmer
prospects for some urban areas in a nation where cities have long
been seen as beacons for jobs and opportunity, the study said.
Researchers at New York University and University of California,
Berkeley analyzed 96 metropolitan areas across the United States to
see how a lack of economic integration within cities affects
people's economic fortunes.
The study, commissioned by the nonprofit group The Pew Charitable
Trusts, found American cities overall are now less economically
mixed than in earlier decades, with increasingly deeper pockets of
rich residents isolated from poor ones.
"There are more neighborhoods where poverty is more concentrated and
wealth is more concentrated," said Patrick Sharkey, a sociology
professor at New York University who helped lead the study.
That isolation makes it hard for the poor to improve their
circumstances, the study found. For example, a low-income family in
a more divided city typically sees four generations pass before
reaching half the nation's mean income. In more mixed areas, it
takes just three, it said.
Such economic segregation is increasing across the United States as
the country continues to find stronger financial footing after the
deep 2007-2009 recession.
Earlier on Wednesday, President Barack Obama returned to the issue
with a speech on income inequality and economic mobility, calling
for a renewed focus on actions that benefit the struggling poor and
Wednesday's study adds to the growing body of evidence highlighting
the nation's uneven economic recovery and growing class divisions.
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Previous studies from Pew have shown that it is easier to move up
the economic ladder in some parts of the United States, namely in
the Northeast and parts of the Mid-Atlantic. Those in other states,
mostly in the South, are less likely to improve their economic
Its latest findings show an impact at a more local level.
Among the cities studied, New York showed the deepest divide,
followed by Newark, New Jersey; Washington, and Los Angeles. Cities
with less division included Tacoma, Washington; Tampa and Orlando in
Florida; Pittsburgh, and Boston.
Sharkey said the implications for Americans, especially the poor, go
well beyond they kind of housing people have and "affects everything
about the community," from school funding and politics to
infrastructure investments and crime rates.
"We should really be thinking about economic mobility at a more
local level," he said.
It also raises questions about the power of American cities.
"It's a trend that makes us think that cities will become less of an
engine for economic mobility if they keep trending toward a scenario
where the rich live in separate communities from the poor."
(Reporting by Susan Heavey; Editing by Steve Orlofsky)