The research, described as game-changing by experts
in the field, suggests human cells could in future be reprogrammed
by the same technique, offering a simpler way to replace damaged
cells or grow new organs for sick and injured people.
Chris Mason, chair of regenerative medicine bioprocessing at
University College London, who was not involved in the work, said
its approach was "the most simple, lowest-cost and quickest method"
to generate so-called pluripotent cells — able to develop into many
different cell types — from mature cells.
"If it works in man, this could be the game changer that ultimately
makes a wide range of cell therapies available using the patient's
own cells as starting material — the age of personalized medicine
would have finally arrived," he said.
The experiments, reported in two papers in the journal Nature on
Wednesday, involved scientists from the RIKEN Center for
Developmental Biology in Japan and Brigham and Women's Hospital and
Harvard Medical School in the United States.
Beginning with mature, adult cells, researchers let them multiply
and then subjected them to stress "almost to the point of death",
they explained, by exposing them to various events including trauma,
low oxygen levels and acidic environments.
Within days, the scientists found that the cells survived and
recovered from the stressful stimulus by naturally reverting into a
state similar to that of an embryonic stem cell.
These stem cells created by this exposure to stresses — dubbed STAP
cells by the researchers — were then able to differentiate and
mature into different types of cells and tissue, depending on the
environments they were given.
"If we can work out the mechanisms by which differentiation states
are maintained and lost, it could open up a wide range of
possibilities for new research and applications using living cells,"
said Haruko Obokata, who lead the work at RIKEN.
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Stem cells are the body's master cells and are able to
differentiate into all other types of cells. Scientists say that, by
helping to regenerate tissue, they could offer ways of tackling
diseases for which there are currently only limited treatments — including heart disease, Parkinson's and stroke.
There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic ones, harvested
from embryos, and adult or iPS cells, which are taken from skin or
blood and reprogrammed back into stem cells.
Because the harvesting of embryonic stem cells requires the
destruction of a human embryo, the technique has been the subject of
ethical concerns and protests from pro-life campaigners.
Dusko Ilic, a reader in stem cell science at Kings College London,
said the Nature studies described "a major scientific discovery" and
predicted their findings would open "a new era in stem cell
"Whether human cells would respond in a similar way to comparable
environmental cues ... remains to be shown," he said in an emailed
comment. "I am sure that the group is working on this and I would
not be surprised if they succeed even within this calendar year."
(Reporting by Kate Kelland; editing by
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