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Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters       Send a link to a friend

Part 1: Introduction

[April 24, 2007]  The National Institute of Mental Health has brought forth information to assist the nation as we recover from the shock and distress created by the recent Virginia Tech shootings. This information is particularly designed to help in times of unanticipated, great or violent loss, but the underlying principles are useful for any level of grief and healing.

Part 1:


Helping young people avoid or overcome emotional problems in the wake of violence or disaster is one of the most important challenges a parent, teacher, or mental health professional can face. The National Institute of Mental Health and other Federal agencies are working to address the issue of assisting children and adolescents who have been victims of or witnesses to violent and/or catastrophic events. The purpose of this fact sheet is to tell what is known about the impact of violence and disasters on children and adolescents and suggest steps to minimize long-term emotional harm.

In the aftermath of the terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, D.C., both adults and children are struggling with the emotional impact of such large-scale damage and losses of life. Other major acts of violence that have been felt across the country include the 1995 bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City and the 1999 shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado. While these disastrous events have caught the Nation's attention, they are only a fraction of the many tragic episodes that affect children's lives. Each year many children and adolescents sustain injuries from violence, lose friends or family members, or are adversely affected by witnessing a violent or catastrophic event. Each situation is unique, whether it centers upon a plane crash where many people are killed, automobile accidents involving friends or family members, or natural disasters such as the Northridge, California Earthquake (1994) or Hurricane Floyd (1999) where deaths occur and homes are lost -- but these events have similarities as well, and cause similar reactions in children. Even in the course of everyday life, exposure to violence in the home or on the streets can lead to emotional harm.

Research has shown that both adults and children who experience catastrophic events show a wide range of reactions.1,2 Some suffer only worries and bad memories that fade with emotional support and the passage of time. Others are more deeply affected and experience long-term problems. Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) shows that some soldiers, survivors of criminal victimization, torture and other violence, and survivors of natural and man-made catastrophes suffer long-term effects from their experiences. Children who have witnessed violence in their families, schools, or communities are also vulnerable to serious long-term problems. Their emotional reactions, including fear, depression, withdrawal or anger, can occur immediately or some time after the tragic event. Youngsters who have experienced a catastrophic event often need support from parents and teachers to avoid long-term emotional harm. Most will recover in a short time, but the few who develop PTSD or other persistent problems need treatment.

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1Yehuda R, McFarlane AC, Shalev AY. Predicting the development of posttraumatic stress disorder from the acute response to a traumatic event. Biological Psychiatry, 1998; 44(12): 1305-13.

2Smith EM, North CS. Posttraumatic stress disorder in natural disasters and technological accidents. In: Wilson JP, Raphael B, eds. International handbook of traumatic stress syndromes. New York: Plenum Press, 1993; 405-19.

The information in this series has been made available through the National Institute of Mental Health.

Articles to come:

Wednesday, April 25

  • Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters
    Part 2: Trauma -- What is it?

Thursday, April 26

  • Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters
    Part 3: How children and adolescents react to trauma

Friday, April 27

  • Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters
    Part 4: Helping the child or adolescent trauma survivor 

Saturday, April 28

  • Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters
    Part 5: Post-traumatic stress disorder

Monday, April 30

  • Helping children and adolescents cope with violence and disasters
    Part 6: What are scientists learning about trauma in children and adolescents?

[Text copied from National Institute of Mental Health]


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